The reference site for Nitrofurantoin

Nitrofurantoin, sold under the trade name Macrobid among others, is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections.

WHAT IS Nitrofurantoin?

Nitrofurantoin is an anti-bacterial that is used to treat urinary tract infections caused by many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria.

This medication works by interfering with the bacterial metabolism of carbohydrate and also disrupting the formation of the bacterial cell wall.

Three forms are available: a microcrystalline form (Furadantin®), a macrocrystalline form (Macrodantin®), and a sustained release macrocrystalline form used twice daily (Macrobid®). The macrocrystalline form is more slowly absorbed than the microcrystalline version and is useful for patients who have difficulty tolerating this second type of medication.

 

Brand Name(s): Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin
CAS nº: 67-20-9
(nye troe fyoor an’ toyn)

 

Product Info

The sections below will provide you with more specific information and guidelines related to nitrofurantoin and its correct use. Please read them carefully.

FDA Information

Nitrofurantoin was approved by the FDA in 1953.

To get this medicine, a prescription is required.

Why is this medication prescribed?

Nitrofurantoin is an anti-bacterial that is used to treat urinary tract infections caused by many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria.

This drug works by interfering with the bacterial metabolism of carbohydrate and also disrupting the formation of the bacterial cell wall.

Three forms are available: a microcrystalline form (Furadantin®), a macrocrystalline form (Macrodantin®), and a sustained release macrocrystalline form used twice daily (Macrobid®). The macrocrystalline form is more slowly absorbed than the microcrystalline version and is useful for patients who cannot tolerate this second type of medication.

Note: Nitrofurantoin must never be used to treat pyelonephritis, renal abscess, pyeloempyema or any urinary tract infection other than cystitis because of its extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication has not been approved for any alternative uses other than those mentioned in the product information section.

Dosage and using this medicine

Nitrofurantoin comes in a capsule and liquid form to be taken orally, and is usually taken two or four times a day for at least 7 days.

Take nitrofurantoin exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these instructions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.

Take each dose with a full glass of water, milk or with food to decrease stomach upset and to increase the absorption of the drug into the body.

Shake the suspension well before measuring a dose. To ensure that you get the correct dose, measure the suspension with a dose-measuring spoon or dropper, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist where you can get one. The suspension can be mixed with water, milk, fruit juice, or infant formula to ease administration. Ensure that the whole mixture is consumed immediately after mixing.

Do not crush, chew, or break the sustained release forms of nitrofurantoin. Swallow them whole. They are specially formulated to slowly release the medication into the body.

Take all of the nitrofurantoin that has been prescribed for you even if you begin to feel better. Your symptoms may start to improve before the infection is completely treated.

What special precautions should I follow?

BEFORE TAKING NITROFURANTOIN:

Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, anemia, diabetes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, any type of debilitating disease, or vitamin B deficiency.

You may not be able to take nitrofurantoin, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment, if you have any of the conditions listed above.

Nitrofurantoin is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it not likely to harm an unborn baby. However, nitrofurantoin should not be taken by pregnant women who are at term (38-42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. Do not take nitrofurantoin without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant.

Additionally, this medication passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing infant. Do not take this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are breast feeding a baby.

Nitrofurantoin should not be used by infants younger than 1 month of age. They cannot properly eliminate the drug from their bodies, and dangerous side effects could result.

Drugs that contain magnesium such as magnesium salicylate (Magan®) and choline-magnesium salicylate (Arthropan®) as well as antacids like Maalox®, Mylanta®, Milk of Magnesia®, Gelusil®, and others may decrease the amount of nitrofurantoin that gets absorbed into the body. Avoid taking medications that contain magnesium within two hours before and after a dose of nitrofurantoin.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the dose you missed, and take only the next dose as directed.

Do not take a double dose of this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Possible side effects from nitrofurantoin include:

nausea
vomiting
loss of appetite
diarrhea
abdominal pain

Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

rust-colored or brownish urine
headache
dizziness
drowsiness
nausea
incorrect results with some urine sugar tests

If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives)
shortness of breath, chest pain, or other respiratory problems
stomach pain
yellowing of the skin or eyes
unusual fatigue or weaknes
numbness or tingling
fever or chills
visual changes
diarrhea

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

What storage conditions are needed for this medicine?

Always keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).

Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed, and talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

In case of an emergency/overdose

In the case of an overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call the local emergency services on 911.

Symptoms of overdose may include:

nausea
vomiting

Product Images

PICTURES OF NITROFURANTOIN PILLS

Below you will find images and specific information on the principal types of nitrofurantoin that exist, including their respective brand name(s), strength, inscription codes and manufacturers.

The information below includes general information and guidelines for patients taking this medication and should never be used to substitute professional medical advice that can be provided by a qualified physician or family doctor.

Name: MACRODANTIN®
Strength(s): 25 MG
Imprint: MACRODANTIN 25MG 0149 0007
Manufacturer: P&G PHARM.

Name: MACRODANTIN®
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: MACRODANTIN 50MG 0149 0008
Manufacturer: P&G PHARM.

Name: NITROFURANTOIN
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: Zenith 50mg 2130
Manufacturer: IVAX PHARMACEUTICALS

Name: NITROFURANTOIN
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: MYLAN 1650
Manufacturer: MYLAN

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